, Scholars have stated that many factors contribute to the poor air quality in Delhi, and northern India, that accompanies the harvest festival of Diwali.  In each legend, myth, and story of Deepawali lies the significance of the victory of good over evil. The day before Diwali is remembered as Naraka Chaturdasi, the day on which Narakasura was killed by Krishna. Employers, too, purchase new clothes for their employees.  Since 2009, Diwali has been celebrated every year at 10 Downing Street, the residence of the British Prime Minister. One tradition starts a new month from the new moon, while the other starts it from the full moon. She decreed that whosoever gambled on Diwali night would prosper throughout the ensuing year. It is the festival of lights: deepÂ means "light" andÂ avali "a row" to become "a row of lights." It falls on the 15th day of the Hindu month of Kartik, so it varies every year. Choti Diwali is the major shopping day for festive, Annakut community meals (left), Krishna holding. , The Diwali festival is likely a fusion of harvest festivals in ancient India. I'm dressed up for Diwali, man. Subhamoy Das is the co-author of "Applied Hinduism: Ancient Wisdom for Today's World." The Hindu religious holiday called Diwali (also spelled Divali) celebrates the new year. It is a time when people mingle about in joy and embrace one another. [note 6], Sanskrit inscriptions in stone and copper mentioning Diwali, occasionally alongside terms such as Dipotsava, Dipavali, Divali and Divalige, have been discovered at numerous sites across India. Sie hängen überall Lichterketten an ihren Häusern auf, essen viele Süßigkeiten und wünschen uns alle drei Meter auf der Straße "Happy Diwali!". Dipavali ( दीवाली, dīvālī; दीपावली dīpāvalī) genannt, bedeutet „Lichterkette” und ist das populärste indische Fest. They install diyas, small earthen oil-filled lamps that they light up for the next five days, near Lakshmi and Ganesha iconography. Dhanteras, Dhanatrayodashi, Yama Deepam (Day 1), Naraka Chaturdashi, Kali Chaudas, Chhoti Diwali, Hanuman Puja (Day 2), Annakut, Balipratipada (Padwa), Govardhan Puja (Day 4), Bhai Duj, Bhau-Beej, Vishwakarma Puja (Day 5), Hindus of eastern and northeastern states of India associate the festival with the goddess.  Families also prepare homemade delicacies for Lakshmi Pujan, regarded as the main day of Diwali. [note 17], The 51% of which[clarification needed] is caused by the industrial pollution, 27% by vehicles, 8% by crop burning and 5% by diwali fireworks. The Badami Cave Temples with sculture depicting Vishnu resting on Shesha (snake). In the lead-up to Diwali, celebrants will prepare by cleaning, renovating, and decorating their homes and workplaces with diyas (oil lamps) and rangolis. , Many Hindus associate the festival with Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth and prosperity, and wife of Vishnu. Im traditionellen Sinne sollte man an allen Stellen in seinem Haus brennende Kerzen oder Kerzen platzieren, um das Haus zu beleuchten. The lights of Diwali also signify a time of inner illumination. Beyond the lights, gambling, and fun, Diwali is also a time to reflect on life and make changes for the upcoming year. Danach sind wir zu einem Tempel gefahren, der im Wald gelegen ist. With that, there are a number of customs that revelers hold dear each year.  According to Lorenz Franz Kielhorn, a German Indologist known for translating many Indic inscriptions, this festival is mentioned as Dipotsavam in verses 6 and 7 of the Ranganatha temple Sanskrit inscription of the 13th-century Kerala Hindu king Ravivarman Samgramadhira. Diwali along with Holi for Hindus, and Easter for Christians, was adopted as public holiday resolution by Pakistan's parliament in 2016, giving the local governments and public institutions the right to declare Holi as a holiday and grant leave for its minority communities, for the first time. He has written several books about Hinduism for children and young adults. Hindu temples on this day prepare and present "mountains of sweets" to the faithful who have gathered for darshan (visit). Each of the four days in the festival of Diwali is marked with a different tradition. He explained that though the actual Hindu festival day is the same, it is identified differently in regional calendars because there are two traditions in the Hindu calendar. , The religious significance of Diwali varies regionally within India. This is believed to please Yama (Yamraj), the god of death, and to ward off untimely death. Die Menschen machen fröhlich und tauschen Geschenke und Süßigkeiten aus, um das Lichterfest zu feiern. However, the focus of the Jain Diwali remains the dedication to Mahavira. Deepa means light. Diwali wird am meisten in Indien, Sri Lanka und Nepal gefeiert. [note 10], Diwali is not a festival for most Buddhists, with the exception of the Newar people of Nepal who revere various deities in the Vajrayana Buddhism and celebrate Diwali by offering prayers to Lakshmi. Part of the inscription, as translated by Kielhorn, reads: "the auspicious festival of lights which disperses the most profound darkness, which in former days was celebrated by the kings Ila, Kartavirya and Sagara, (...) as Sakra (Indra) is of the gods, the universal monarch who knows the duties by the three Vedas, afterwards celebrated here at Ranga for Vishnu, resplendent with Lakshmi resting on his radiant lap. Each of the four days in the festival of Diwali is marked with a different tradition. , This day is commonly celebrated as Diwali in Tamil Nadu, Goa, and Karnataka. Monier Monier Williams (2008 updated, Harvard University), Sanskrit English dictionary, दीप. Such events are also mentioned in Sikh historical records. What remains constant is the celebration of life, its enjoyment, and a sense of goodness.  The day and its rituals are interpreted as ways to liberate any souls from their suffering in "Naraka", or hell, as well as a reminder of spiritual auspiciousness.  According to Goldstein, these are then shaped into various forms, such as laddus, barfis, halwa, kachoris, shrikhand, and sandesh, rolled and stuffed delicacies, such as karanji, shankarpali, maladu, susiyam, pottukadalai. , The celebrations and rituals of the Jains and the Sikhs are similar to those of the Hindus where social and community bonds are renewed. , Diwali marks a major shopping period in India, and is comparable to the Christmas period in terms of consumer purchases and economic activity. ", India Journal: ‘Tis the Season to be Shopping, Pakistan parliament adopts resolution for Holi, Diwali, Easter holidays, "The Svanti Festival: Victory over Death and the Renewal of the Ritual Cycle in Nepal", Diwali – Celebrating the triumph of goodness, Krishna Killed Narakasur – The Narakasur Legend of Diwali – Diwali Legend, Christopher H. Johnson, Simon Teuscher & David Warren Sabean 2011, https://www.drikpanchang.com/diwali/yama-deepam/yama-deepam-date-time.html?year=2020, http://www.swahainternational.org/the-yam-deep-or-jam-ke-deeya/, "Choti Diwali 2020 date: Kali Chaudas significance, when and how to celebrate - Times of India", "Diwali Festival 2020 India:Date,Story,Celebration,Diwali Special Gift", If You Missed Diwali in India, Dallas Is the Place to Be, Manchester Dashehra and Diwali Mela plans announced, Festive season to boost India gold buying, India's banks face pre-Diwali cash crunch, Diwali lights up consumer spending, festive spirit beats inflation, Fear Of Toxic Smog Leads India To Limit Diwali Fireworks, Firework Facts: Americans Incinerate $1 Billion in July Fourth Fireworks Every Year, Oneline sales may surpass Rs 30000 crores in festive months, Average family to spend Rs. Homes are cleaned and decorated by day and illuminated by night with earthen oil lamps.  The lamps from the puja ceremony are then used to light more earthenware lamps, which are placed in rows along the parapets of temples and houses, while some diyas are set adrift on rivers and streams. Heute haben wir uns hier versammelt, um Shri Laxmi zu verehren. In some parts of India, the day after Lakshmi Puja is marked with the Govardhan Puja and Balipratipada (Padwa). One day, the demon Ravana disguised himself as a beggar, so he could steal Sita. Je nach Region dauert es zwischen einem und fünf Tagen. In een speciale uitzending worden hindoes met elk hun eigen beleving van Diwali geportretteerd. Some people refer to Diwali as a five-day festival because they includeÂ the festival of DhanterasÂ (dhan meaning "wealth" and teras meaning "13th"). This legend is remembered through the ritual of building small mountain-like miniatures from cow dung.  Other goods that are bought in substantial quantities during Diwali include confectionery and fireworks.  Hindus from the Braj region in northern India, parts of Assam, as well as southern Tamil and Telugu communities view Diwali as the day the god Krishna overcame and destroyed the evil demon king Narakasura, in yet another symbolic victory of knowledge and good over ignorance and evil. It began sending official greetings and message to Muslims in 1967 on. [note 15] ASSOCHAM, a trade organisation in India, forecasted that online shopping alone to be over ₹300 billion (US$4.2 billion) over the 2017 Diwali season. It begins in Diwali or Deepaavali is the festival of lights. Outside of India, it is more than a Hindu festival; it's a celebration of South-Asian identities. Am ersten Tag wird das Haus aufgeräumt und geschmückt und man kauft neue Kleidung sowie Schmuck. It coincides with the day of Kali Chaudas. Omdat ik wil dat mijn Diwali huwelijksreis iets speciaals te worden. Diwali is marked by four days of celebration, which literally illuminates the country with its brilliance and dazzles people with its joy. On this day, they feed the poor on an incredible scale. This festival instills charity in the hearts of people, who perform good deeds. "Deepawali" and "Dipawali" redirect here. It most likely began as an important harvest festival. Homes are illuminated with lights, and firecrackers fill the skies as an expression of respect to the heavens for the attainment of health, wealth, knowledge, peace, and prosperity.  Women and children decorate doorways within homes and offices with rangolis, colourful designs made from rice flour, flower petals, colored rice or colored sand, while the boys and men decorate the roofs and walls of family homes, markets, and temples and string up lights and lanterns.  Shops either do not open or close early on this day allowing employees to enjoy family time. Still another possible reason has a more scientific basis: the fumes produced by the firecrackers kill or repel many insects, including mosquitoes, which are plentiful after the rains. The name Diwali comes from a Sanskrit word that means “row of lights.” The holiday is often called the Festival of Lights. Halwasind kleine quadratische Süßigkeiten, die mit Nüssengefüllt und bunt verziert sind.  The festival formally begins two days before the night of Diwali, and ends two days thereafter. A 2017 estimate states 50,000 tons (100 million pounds) of fireworks are exploded annually in India over the Diwali festival. The Catholic dicastery Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, founded as Secretariat for non-Christians by Pope Paul VI, began sending official greetings and Pope's message to the Hindus on Diwali in the mid-1990s. An Diwali selbst wird neue Kleidung angezogen und man macht sich schick, geht in einen Tempel, betet und feiert anschließend mit der Familie oder in der Nachbarschaft. Give and forgive.Â It is common practice that people forget and forgive the wrongs done by others during Diwali. Diwali définition, signification, ce qu'est Diwali: 1. a Hindu festival in October/November that is a celebration of light and of hopes for the….  Many towns organise community parades and fairs with parades or music and dance performances in parks.  Another early 13th-century Sanskrit stone inscription, written in the Devanagari script, has been found in the north end of a mosque pillar in Jalore, Rajasthan evidently built using materials from a demolished Jain temple. In all these years, I've never seen such a blissful Diwali.  Some Hindus, Jains and Sikhs will send Diwali greeting cards to family near and far during the festive season, occasionally with boxes of Indian confectionery.  The term "chhoti" means little, while "Naraka" means hell and "Chaturdashi" means "fourteenth". A variety of entertainments are usually available for inhabitants of the local community to enjoy.  According to J.S. Thus, people worship Hanuman the day before Diwali's main day. , Diwali is celebrated by Hindus, Jains, Sikhs, and Newar Buddhists, although for each faith it marks different historical events and stories, but nonetheless the festival represents the same symbolic victory of light over darkness, knowledge over ignorance, and good over evil.  According to Rachel Fell McDermott, a scholar of South Asian, particular Bengali, studies, in Bengal during Navaratri (Dussehra elsewhere in India) the Durga puja is the main focus, although in the eastern and north eastern states the two are synonymous, but on Diwali the focus is on the puja dedicated to Kali. [note 14] In the modern day, Diwali mela are held at college, or university, campuses or as community events by members of the Indian diaspora.  The festival is an annual homecoming and bonding period not only for families, but also for communities and associations, particularly those in urban areas, which will organise activities, events and gatherings.  According to Rao, Diwali is one of the major festivals where rural Indians spend a significant portion of their annual income, and is a means for them to renew their relationships and social networks. Ich entschied mich für Kebabs mit einem Hauch von Frischkäse und Warqi Paratha, was ein Klassiker ist.  Diwali is also marked with fireworks and the decoration of floors with rangoli designs. Diwali ist mit dem deutschen Weihnachtsfest vergleichbar, da es ebenso freudvoll und von einem spirituellen Charakter geprägt ist. Aavali means line, row, range etc. Upon seeing the beggar, Sita stepped out of her circle, and Ravana stole her and escaped with a chariot into the sky. Es ist ein religiöses Fest im Hinduismus. Diwali is a Hindu festival held in honour of Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth. , During the season of Diwali, numerous rural townships and villages host melas, or fairs, where local producers and artisans trade produce and goods. However, there are various legends pointing to the origin of Diwali. In 2013, about ₹25 billion (US$350 million) of fireworks were sold to merchants for the Diwali season, an equivalent retail value of about ₹50 billion (US$700 million) according to The Times of India. Diwali ist Indiens größtes Festival, etwa so wichtig wie bei uns Weihnachten. The vibrations produced by the greetings of love, which fill the atmosphere, are powerful. Indisches Essen Diwali Speise - Currys, Reisgerichte, Dal-Linsen, Masala, Tandoori BBQ, Snacks, Lassi, Mango Chutney - einfach Indische Rezepte  According to some observers, this traditional celebration by Newar Buddhists in Nepal, through the worship of Lakshmi and Vishnu during Diwali, is not syncretism but rather a reflection of the freedom within Mahayana Buddhist tradition to worship any deity for their worldly betterment. The sages who instituted this Deepawali custom may have hoped that their descendants would realize its benefits and make it a regular habit in their lives.  In another interpretation, it is thought to reference the legend of Parvati and her husband Shiva playing a game of dyuta (dice) on a board of twelve squares and thirty pieces, Parvati wins. Prosper and progress. A sister ritually feeding her brother on Bhai Duj-Diwali. Each day has the following rituals and significance:, Dhanteras, derived from Dhan meaning wealth and teras meaning thirteenth, marks the thirteenth day of the dark fortnight of Kartik and the beginning of Diwali. Diwali was not a public holiday in Pakistan from 1947 to 2016. One of the earliest reports on this variation was by Wilson in 1847. Illustrative Islamic records, states Stephen Blake, include those of 16th-century Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi who wrote, "during Diwali.... the ignorant ones amongst Muslims, particularly women, perform the ceremonies... they celebrate it like their own Id and send presents to their daughters and sisters,.... they attach much importance and weight to this season [of Diwali]. It falls on the 15th day of the Hindu month of Kartik, so it varies every year. The Jains observe their own Diwali which marks the final liberation of Mahavira, the Sikhs celebrate Bandi Chhor Divas to mark the release of Guru Hargobind from a Mughal Empire prison, while Newar Buddhists, unlike other Buddhists, celebrate Diwali by worshipping Lakshmi, while the Hindus of Eastern India and Bangladesh generally celebrate Diwali, by worshipping goddess Kali. According to a Government of Himachal Pradesh and India publication, the Vishvakarma puja is observed on the fourth day of Diwali in the Himalayan state.  According to Kinsley, the ritual use of cow dung, a common fertiliser, is an agricultural motif and a celebration of its significance to annual crop cycles. Diwali, Divali, Deepavali is the Hindu festival of lights, usually lasting five days and celebrated during the Hindu Lunisolar month Kartika (between mid-October and mid-November). The Diwali night's lights and firecrackers, in this interpretation, represent a celebratory and symbolic farewell to the departed ancestral souls. The diyas (lamps) are mentioned in Skanda Kishore Purana as symbolising parts of the sun, describing it as the cosmic giver of light and energy to all life and which seasonally transitions in the Hindu calendar month of Kartik. Some Hindu communities mark the last day as Bhai Dooj or the regional equivalent, which is dedicated to the bond between sister and brother, while other Hindu and Sikh craftsmen communities mark this day as Vishwakarma Puja and observe it by performing maintenance in their work spaces and offering prayers. Der war noch ganz damit beschäftigt seinem Bruder Rama zu Hilfe zu sein. Scholars contest the 527 BCE date and consider Mahavira's biographical details as uncertain.  According to the Jain tradition, this practice of lighting lamps first began on the day of Mahavira's nirvana in 527 BCE,[note 9] when 18 kings who had gathered for Mahavira's final teachings issued a proclamation that lamps be lit in remembrance of the "great light, Mahavira". Ashi, die uns zu dieser besonderen Feier eingeladen hat, erzählt uns die Legende, auf der Diwali beruht. [note 18], The use of fireworks also causes an increase in the number of burn injuries in India during Diwali. The word Deepawali comes from the word the Sanskrit word deep, which means an Indian lantern/lamp. It is celebrated in October or November with the lighting of lamps in homes and temples , and with prayers to Lakshmi. Deepawali, Deepavali, or Diwali is the biggest and the brightest of all Hindu festivals. Ich bin zu Surbhie, einer Freundin aus meiner Klasse gekommen. Illuminate your inner self.  At dusk, lamps placed earlier in the inside and outside of the home are lit up to welcome Lakshmi. The festivities vary between different regions. Earlier in the season's fortnight, some welcome the souls of their ancestors to join the family for the festivities with the Mahalaya.  The telling of these myths are a reminder of the Hindu belief that good ultimately triumphs over evil.  National and civic leaders such as Prince Charles have attended Diwali celebrations at prominent Hindu temples in the UK, such as the Swaminarayan Temple in Neasden, using the occasion to highlight contributions of the Hindu community to British society. Hindus rund um die Welt feiern Diwali mit Geschenken, Feuerwerken und Festessen im Familien- und Freundeskreis. Diwali, auch Deepavali bzw. Diese Snacks enthalten Safran und Trockenfrüchte, die dem Festival eigen sind.  In 2020, the INDF ETF was launched to mark the start of Diwali. Diwali is a unifying event, and it can soften even the hardest of hearts. Diwali is a major holiday in India , but it is celebrated by people living outside of India as well. A variety of sweets are prepared using flour, semolina, rice, chickpea flour, dry fruit pieces powders or paste, milk solids (mawa or khoya) and clarified butter (ghee).  The festival of Diwali, according to Ray Colledge, highlights three events in Sikh history: the founding of the city of Amritsar in 1577, the release of Guru Hargobind from the Mughal prison, and the day of Bhai Mani Singh's martyrdom in 1738 as a result of his failure to pay a fine for trying to celebrate Diwali and thereafter refusing to convert to Islam. Die mythologischen Bezüge von Diwali sind je nach Landesteil verschieden. , Diwali (English: /dɪˈwɑːliː/) or Divali is from the Sanskrit dīpāvali meaning "row or series of lights". , As per another popular tradition, in the Dvapara Yuga period, Krishna, an avatar of Vishnu, killed the demon Narakasura, who was evil king of Pragjyotishapura, near present-day Assam and released 16000 girls held captive by Narakasura. Shopkeepers and small operations perform puja rituals in their office premises. [note 2], The five-day celebration is observed every year in early autumn after the conclusion of the summer harvest, coincides with the new moon (amāvasyā) and is deemed the darkest night of the Hindu lunisolar calendar. In Jainism, Deepawali has the added significance of marking the great event of Lord Mahavira attaining the eternal bliss of nirvana. The day also marks a major shopping day to purchase new utensils, home equipment, jewellery, firecrackers, and other items. "[note 8], Jain inscriptions, such as the 10th century Saundatti inscription about a donation of oil to Jinendra worship for the Diwali rituals, speak of Dipotsava. This is the day when Hindu, Jain and Sikh temples and homes are aglow with lights, thereby making it the "festival of lights".  Depending on the region, celebrations include prayers before one or more Hindu deities, the most common being Lakshmi. Food is a major focus with families partaking in feasts and sharing mithai.  In Gujarat, Annakut is the first day of the new year and celebrated through the purchase of essentials, or sabras (literally, "good things in life"), such as salt, offering prayers to Krishna and visiting temples. Because I want my Diwali honeymoon to be special. The fourth day is referred to as Yama Dvitiya (also called Bhai Dooj), and on this day sisters invite their brothers to their homes. In other regions, parents invite a newly married daughter, or son, together with their spouses to a festive meal and give them gifts. Amavasya, the second day of Deepawali, marks the worship of LakshmiÂ when she is in her most benevolent mood, fulfilling the wishes of her devotees. Lakshmi ist die Göttin von Diwali. Rise and shine. [note 7] Examples include a 10th-century Rashtrakuta empire copper plate inscription of Krsna III (939–967 CE) that mentions Dipotsava, and a 12th-century mixed Sanskrit-Kannada Sinda inscription discovered in the Isvara temple of Dharwad in Karnataka where the inscription refers to the festival as a "sacred occasion". , Sikhs celebrate Bandi Chhor Divas in remembrance of the release of Guru Hargobind from the Gwalior Fort prison by the Mughal emperor, Jahangir, and the day he arrived at the Golden Temple in Amritsar. This celebration of wealth and prosperity occursÂ two days before the festival of lights.  The second day is Naraka Chaturdashi.  Textual evidence suggests that Bengali Hindus worshipped Lakshmi before the colonial era, and that the Kali puja is a more recent phenomenon. [note 4][note 5], Publications from the British colonial era also made mention of Diwali, such as the note on Hindu festivals published in 1799 by Sir William Jones, a philologist known for his early observations on Sanskrit and Indo-European languages. Zu wissen, wie man Diwali feiert, ist für viele von Interesse, da es eines der wichtigsten Festivals der Hindus ist, das in vielen Teilen der Welt, insbesondere in Indien, gefeiert wird. Kinder zünden Feuerwerkskörper an, um den festlichen Geist von Diwali zu genießen. , The day celebrates the sibling bond between brother and sister. , On the second day of Diwali, Hanuman Puja is performed in some parts of India especially in Gujarat. It is with each Deepawali and the lights that illuminate our homes and hearts that this simple truth finds new reason and hope. , The artisan Hindu and Sikh community celebrates the fourth day as the Vishwakarma puja day.  The festivities begin two days before amāvasyā, on Dhanteras, and extend two days after, on the second day of the month of Kartik. Major temples and homes are decorated with lights, festive foods shared with all, friends and relatives remembered and visited with gifts.  A mythological interpretation of this festive day is the destruction of the asura (demon) Narakasura by Krishna, a victory that frees 16,000 imprisoned princesses kidnapped by Narakasura. Bold indicates major holidays commonly celebrated in the United States, which often represent the major celebrations of the month. On 9 October 2017, the Supreme Court of India banned the sale, but not use, of fireworks in Delhi during the Diwali season, with the assumption that banning the use of fireworks would substantially improve the air quality of Delhi. [note 11] Contemporary Bengali celebrations mirror those found elsewhere, with teenage boys playing with fireworks and the sharing of festive food with family, but with the Shakti goddess Kali as the focus.
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